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Saturday, 7 May 2011

Portugal and Spain Alert: Ireland Bankruptcy Danger After EU ECB IMF European Central Bank Bailout

Ireland's future depends on breaking free from bailout

"National survival requires that Ireland walk away from the bailout. This in turn requires the Government to do two things: disengage from the banks, and bring its budget into balance immediately."  

This is the crux of it and we had better get on with it. Dissolve NAMA now and let the ECB swing in the air instead of going along with their dastardly plan to grab our national assets before making us a pariah bankrupt state.  
Serves them right. Thank's Morgan you figured it out, others could only talk about asymmetric risks. As a reward I am going to vote for you to deliver the speech from the steps of the GPO in 2016.

OPINION from Irish Times: Ireland is heading for bankruptcy, which would be catastrophic for a country that trades on its reputation as a safe place to do business, writes MORGAN KELLY
WITH THE Irish Government on track to owe a quarter of a trillion euro by 2014, a prolonged and chaotic national bankruptcy is becoming inevitable. By the time the dust settles, Ireland’s last remaining asset, its reputation as a safe place from which to conduct business, will have been destroyed.
Ireland is facing economic ruin.

While most people would trace our ruin to to the bank guarantee of September 2008, the real error was in sticking with the guarantee long after it had become clear that the bank losses were insupportable. Brian Lenihan’s original decision to guarantee most of the bonds of Irish banks was a mistake, but a mistake so obvious and so ridiculous that it could easily have been reversed. The ideal time to have reversed the bank guarantee was a few months later when Patrick Honohan was appointed governor of the Central Bank and assumed de facto control of Irish economic policy.

As a respected academic expert on banking crises, Honohan commanded the international authority to have announced that the guarantee had been made in haste and with poor information, and would be replaced by a restructuring where bonds in the banks would be swapped for shares.

Instead, Honohan seemed unperturbed by the possible scale of bank losses, repeatedly insisting that they were “manageable”. Like most Irish economists of his generation, he appeared to believe that Ireland was still the export-driven powerhouse of the 1990s, rather than the credit-fuelled Ponzi scheme it had become since 2000; and the banking crisis no worse than the, largely manufactured, government budget crisis of the late 1980s.

Rising dismay at Honohan’s judgment crystallised into outright scepticism after an extraordinary interview with Bloomberg business news on May 28th last year. Having overseen the Central Bank’s “quite aggressive” stress tests of the Irish banks, he assured them that he would have “the two big banks, fixed by the end of the year. I think it’s quite good news The banks are floating away from dependence on the State and will be free standing”.
Honohan’s miscalculation of the bank losses has turned out to be the costliest mistake ever made by an Irish person. Armed with Honohan’s assurances that the bank losses were manageable, the Irish government confidently rode into the Little Bighorn and repaid the bank bondholders, even those who had not been guaranteed under the original scheme. This suicidal policy culminated in the repayment of most of the outstanding bonds last September.

Disaster followed within weeks. Nobody would lend to Irish banks, so that the maturing bonds were repaid largely by emergency borrowing from the European Central Bank: by November the Irish banks already owed more than €60 billion. Despite aggressive cuts in government spending, the certainty that bank losses would far exceed Honohan’s estimates led financial markets to stop lending to Ireland.

On November 16th, European finance ministers urged Lenihan to accept a bailout to stop the panic spreading to Spain and Portugal, but he refused, arguing that the Irish government was funded until the following summer. Although attacked by the Irish media for this seemingly delusional behaviour, Lenihan, for once, was doing precisely the right thing. Behind Lenihan’s refusal lay the thinly veiled threat that, unless given suitably generous terms, Ireland could hold happily its breath for long enough that Spain and Portugal, who needed to borrow every month, would drown.

At this stage, with Lenihan looking set to exploit his strong negotiating position to seek a bailout of the banks only, Honohan intervened. As well as being Ireland’s chief economic adviser, he also plays for the opposing team as a member of the council of the European Central Bank, whose decisions he is bound to carry out. In Frankfurt for the monthly meeting of the ECB on November 18th, Honohan announced on RTÉ Radio 1’s Morning Ireland that Ireland would need a bailout of “tens of billions”.

Rarely has a finance minister been so deftly sliced off at the ankles by his central bank governor. And so the Honohan Doctrine that bank losses could and should be repaid by Irish taxpayers ran its predictable course with the financial collapse and international bailout of the Irish State.

Ireland’s Last Stand began less shambolically than you might expect. The IMF, which believes that lenders should pay for their stupidity before it has to reach into its pocket, presented the Irish with a plan to haircut €30 billion of unguaranteed bonds by two-thirds on average. Lenihan was overjoyed, according to a source who was there, telling the IMF team: “You are Ireland’s salvation.”

The deal was torpedoed from an unexpected direction. At a conference call with the G7 finance ministers, the haircut was vetoed by US treasury secretary Timothy Geithner who, as his payment of $13 billion from government-owned AIG to Goldman Sachs showed, believes that bankers take priority over taxpayers. The only one to speak up for the Irish was UK chancellor George Osborne, but Geithner, as always, got his way. An instructive, if painful, lesson in the extent of US soft power, and in who our friends really are.

The negotiations went downhill from there. On one side was the European Central Bank, unabashedly representing Ireland’s creditors and insisting on full repayment of bank bonds. On the other was the IMF, arguing that Irish taxpayers would be doing well to balance their government’s books, let alone repay the losses of private banks. And the Irish? On the side of the ECB, naturally.

In the circumstances, the ECB walked away with everything it wanted. The IMF were scathing of the Irish performance, with one staffer describing the eagerness of some Irish negotiators to side with the ECB as displaying strong elements of Stockholm Syndrome.

The bailout represents almost as much of a scandal for the IMF as it does for Ireland. The IMF found itself outmanoeuvred by ECB negotiators, their low opinion of whom they are not at pains to conceal. More importantly, the IMF was forced by the obduracy of Geithner and the spinelessness, or worse, of the Irish to lend their imprimatur, and €30 billion of their capital, to a deal that its negotiators privately admit will end in Irish bankruptcy.

Lending to an insolvent state, which has no hope of reducing its debt enough to borrow in markets again, breaches the most fundamental rule of the IMF, and a heated debate continues there over the legality of the Irish deal.
Six months on, and with Irish government debt rated one notch above junk and the run on Irish banks starting to spread to household deposits, it might appear that the Irish bailout of last November has already ended in abject failure. On the contrary, as far as its ECB architects are concerned, the bailout has turned out to be an unqualified success.

The one thing you need to understand about the Irish bailout is that it had nothing to do with repairing Ireland’s finances enough to allow the Irish Government to start borrowing again in the bond markets at reasonable rates: what people ordinarily think of a bailout as doing.

The finances of the Irish Government are like a bucket with a large hole in the form of the banking system. While any half-serious rescue would have focused on plugging this hole, the agreed bailout ostentatiously ignored the banks, except for reiterating the ECB-Honohan view that their losses would be borne by Irish taxpayers. Try to imagine the Bank of England’s insisting that Northern Rock be rescued by Newcastle City Council and you have some idea of how seriously the ECB expects the Irish bailout to work.

Instead, the sole purpose of the Irish bailout was to frighten the Spanish into line with a vivid demonstration that EU rescues are not for the faint-hearted. And the ECB plan, so far anyway, has worked. Given a choice between being strung up like Ireland – an object of international ridicule, paying exorbitant rates on bailout funds, its government ministers answerable to a Hungarian university lecturer – or mending their ways, the Spanish have understandably chosen the latter.

But why was it necessary, or at least expedient, for the EU to force an economic collapse on Ireland to frighten Spain? The answer goes back to a fundamental, and potentially fatal, flaw in the design of the euro zone: the lack of any means of dealing with large, insolvent banks.

Back when the euro was being planned in the mid-1990s, it never occurred to anyone that cautious, stodgy banks like AIB and Bank of Ireland, run by faintly dim former rugby players, could ever borrow tens of billions overseas, and lose it all on dodgy property loans. Had the collapse been limited to Irish banks, some sort of rescue deal might have been cobbled together; but a suspicion lingers that many Spanish banks – which inflated a property bubble almost as exuberant as Ireland’s, but in the world’s ninth largest economy – are hiding losses as large as those that sank their Irish counterparts.

Uniquely in the world, the European Central Bank has no central government standing behind it that can levy taxes. To rescue a banking system as large as Spain’s would require a massive commitment of resources by European countries to a European Monetary Fund: something so politically complex and financially costly that it will only be considered in extremis, to avert the collapse of the euro zone. It is easiest for now for the ECB to keep its fingers crossed that Spain pulls through by itself, encouraged by the example made of the Irish.

Irish insolvency is now less a matter of economics than of arithmetic. If everything goes according to plan, as it always does, Ireland’s government debt will top €190 billion by 2014, with another €45 billion in Nama and €35 billion in bank recapitalisation, for a total of €270 billion, plus whatever losses the Irish Central Bank has made on its emergency lending. Subtracting off the likely value of the banks and Nama assets, Namawinelake (by far the best source on the Irish economy) reckons our final debt will be about €220 billion, and I think it will be closer to €250 billion, but these differences are immaterial: either way we are talking of a Government debt that is more than €120,000 per worker, or 60 per cent larger than GNP.

Economists have a rule of thumb that once its national debt exceeds its national income, a small economy is in danger of default (large economies, like Japan, can go considerably higher). Ireland is so far into the red zone that marginal changes in the bailout terms can make no difference: we are going to be in the Hudson.

The ECB applauded and lent Ireland the money to ensure that the banks that lent to Anglo and Nationwide be repaid, and now finds itself in the situation where, as a consequence, the banks that lent to the Irish Government are at risk of losing most of what they lent. In other words, the Irish banking crisis has become part of the larger European sovereign debt crisis.

Given the political paralysis in the EU, and a European Central Bank that sees its main task as placating the editors of German tabloids, the most likely outcome of the European debt crisis is that, after two years or so to allow French and German banks to build up loss reserves, the insolvent economies will be forced into some sort of bankruptcy.

Make no mistake: while government defaults are almost the normal state of affairs in places like Greece and Argentina, for a country like Ireland that trades on its reputation as a safe place to do business, a bankruptcy would be catastrophic. Sovereign bankruptcies drag on for years as creditors hold out for better terms, or sell to so-called vulture funds that engage in endless litigation overseas to have national assets such as aircraft impounded in the hope that they can make a sufficient nuisance of themselves to be bought off.

Worse still, a bankruptcy can do nothing to repair Ireland’s finances. Given the other commitments of the Irish State (to the banks, Nama, EU, ECB and IMF), for a bankruptcy to return government debt to a sustainable level, the holders of regular government bonds will have to be more or less wiped out. Unfortunately, most Irish government bonds are held by Irish banks and insurance companies.

In other words, we have embarked on a futile game of passing the parcel of insolvency: first from the banks to the Irish State, and next from the State back to the banks and insurance companies. The eventual outcome will likely see Ireland as some sort of EU protectorate, Europe’s answer to Puerto Rico.

Suppose that we did not want to follow our current path towards an ECB-directed bankruptcy and spiralling national ruin, is there anything we could do? While Prof Honohan sportingly threw away our best cards last September, there still is a way out that, while not painless, is considerably less painful than what Europe has in mind for us.

National survival requires that Ireland walk away from the bailout. This in turn requires the Government to do two things: disengage from the banks, and bring its budget into balance immediately.

First the banks. While the ECB does not want to rescue the Irish banks, it cannot let them collapse either and start a wave of panic that sweeps across Europe. So, every time one of you expresses your approval of the Irish banks by moving your savings to a foreign-owned bank, the Irish bank goes and replaces your money with emergency borrowing from the ECB or the Irish Central Bank. Their current borrowings are €160 billion.

The original bailout plan was that the loan portfolios of Irish banks would be sold off to repay these borrowings. However, foreign banks know that many of these loans, mortgages especially, will eventually default, and were not interested. As a result, the ECB finds itself with the Irish banks wedged uncomfortably far up its fundament, and no way of dislodging them.

This allows Ireland to walk away from the banking system by returning the Nama assets to the banks, and withdrawing its promissory notes in the banks. The ECB can then learn the basic economic truth that if you lend €160 billion to insolvent banks backed by an insolvent state, you are no longer a creditor: you are the owner. At some stage the ECB can take out an eraser and, where “Emergency Loan” is written in the accounts of Irish banks, write “Capital” instead. When it chooses to do so is its problem, not ours.

At a stroke, the Irish Government can halve its debt to a survivable €110 billion. The ECB can do nothing to the Irish banks in retaliation without triggering a catastrophic panic in Spain and across the rest of Europe. The only way Europe can respond is by cutting off funding to the Irish Government.

So the second strand of national survival is to bring the Government budget immediately into balance. The reason for governments to run deficits in recessions is to smooth out temporary dips in economic activity. However, our current slump is not temporary: Ireland bet everything that house prices would rise forever, and lost. To borrow so that senior civil servants like me can continue to enjoy salaries twice as much as our European counterparts makes no sense, macroeconomic or otherwise.

Cutting Government borrowing to zero immediately is not painless but it is the only way of disentangling ourselves from the loan sharks who are intent on making an example of us. In contrast, the new Government’s current policy of lying on the ground with a begging bowl and hoping that someone takes pity on us does not make for a particularly strong negotiating position. By bringing our budget immediately into balance, we focus attention on the fact that Ireland’s problems stem almost entirely from the activities of six privately owned banks, while freeing ourselves to walk away from these poisonous institutions. Just as importantly, it sends a signal to the rest of the world that Ireland – which 20 years ago showed how a small country could drag itself out of poverty through the energy and hard work of its inhabitants, but has since fallen among thieves and their political fixers – is back and means business.

Of course, we all know that this will never happen. Irish politicians are too used to being rewarded by Brussels to start fighting against it, even if it is a matter of national survival. It is easier to be led along blindfold until the noose is slipped around our necks and we are kicked through the trapdoor into bankruptcy.

The destruction wrought by the bankruptcy will not just be economic but political. Just as the Lenihan bailout destroyed Fianna Fáil, so the Noonan bankruptcy will destroy Fine Gael and Labour, leaving them as reviled and mistrusted as their predecessors. And that will leave Ireland in the interesting situation where the economic crisis has chewed up and spat out all of the State’s constitutional parties. The last election was reassuringly dull and predictable but the next, after the trauma and chaos of the bankruptcy, will be anything but.

Morgan Kelly is professor of economics at University College Dublin

Source: Irish Times

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Hamilton House Bristol Anarchist Bookfair 2011: May Day Resistance Alternatives to Cuts

Saturday 7 May 2011, 10.30am to 6.30pm, Hamilton House, 80 Stokes Croft, Bristol BS1 3QY

With over 50 stalls, 28 meetings & workshops, Bristol Indymedia room, Radical History Zone, a kids space, all day vegan cafe. Accessible to all. Entry free, donations welcomed.

For all Bookfair info, including full programme, related other events, publicity materials, venue details, after-party info and links to local groups & bookfair participants please see Bookfair website.

In the Tradition of May Day...Resistance and Alternatives to Cuts... This years Bristol Bookfair takes place just after May Day, the historic international workers day when people remember and celebrate struggles past and present. Since the Haymarket Martyrs struggle for a 40 hour week in Chicago in 1886, working people have won many reforms to improve their daily lives, both at work and in society as a whole. But as we gather for this year's Bookfair many of those gains are being torn from our grasp by the ideologically driven ConDem Coalition. With inflation & unemployment rising, cuts in jobs & services gathering pace, privatisation for profit rampant, and an increasingly authoritarian state going to war with its civilian population, 2011 is shaping up as being one of the most critical years in Britain for decades.

The UK's student & youth protests of late 2010 energised a faltering campaign against cuts. But still the cuts keep coming, not just here but around the world. An international crisis demands an international resistance, one that is built from the bottom up, beginning locally. The Bristol Bookfair hopes to play its part in helping that resistance grow.

Anarchists have no illusions about the intentions of bosses and the state - they profit from our labours and try to control our daily lives. Whilst we engage with our neighbours and fellow workers in local struggles to better our daily lives, our ultimate aim is not small scale reform but total social revolution, not in the distant future but right here and now.

The Bookfair will focus on resistance to the cuts & crisis, and on theoretical and real alternatives, happening right now. We invite YOU - workers & unemployed, students & youth, anarchists, friends, radicals and other freethinkers to participate as equals at the Bookfair. To share ideas & experiences, discuss & debate, plot & plan. Whether you are new to anarchist ideas and practices, or a long-term activist, you will find something for everyone at the Bristol Bookfair. As we gather the many strands of anarchism into one large melting pot, and stir gently - come along and see what's cooking!

Social Change Not Regime Change
bookfair collective
- Homepage: http://www.bristolanarchistbookfair.org/

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Thursday, 5 May 2011

Portugal Economy Crisis IMF Bailout Troika Memorandum Economic Policy Coditionality Agreement Scribd Full Download


 Portugal Economy Crisis IMF Bailout Troika Memorandum Agreement Scribd Full Download

3 May 2011, 13:40

[With regard to Council Regulation (EU) n∞ 407/2010 of 11 May 2010 establishing a
European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, and in particular Article 3(5) thereof, this
Memorandum of Understanding details the general economic policy conditions as embedded
in Council Implementing Decision [Ö] of [Ö] on granting Union financial assistance to
Portugal. The quarterly disbursement of financial assistance from the European Financial
Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM)1 will be subject to quarterly reviews of conditionality for
the duration of the programme. The first review will be carried out in the third quarter of
2011, and the 12-th and last review in the second quarter of 2014. Release of the instalments
will be based on observance of quantitative performance criteria, respect for EU Council
Decisions and Recommendations in the context of the excessive deficit procedure, and a
positive evaluation of progress made with respect to policy criteria in the Memorandum of
Economic and Financial Policies (MEFP) and in this Memorandum of Understanding on
specific economic policy conditionality (MoU), which specifies the detailed criteria that will
be assessed for the successive reviews up to the end of the programme. The review taking
place in any given quarter will assess compliance with the conditions to be met by the end of
the previous quarter.

If targets are missed or expected to be missed, additional action will be taken. The authorities
commit to consult with the European Commission, the ECB and the IMF on the adoption of
policies that are not consistent with this Memorandum. They will also provide the European
Commission, the ECB and the IMF with all information requested that is available to monitor
progress during programme implementation and to track the economic and financial
situation. Prior to the release of the instalments, the authorities shall provide a compliance
report on the fulfilment of the conditionality.]

1 On 8 April 2011, Eurogroup and ECOFIN Ministers issued a statement clarifying that EU (European Financial
Stabilisation Mechanism) and euro-area (European Financial Stability Facility) financial support would be
provided on the basis of a policy programme supported by strict conditionality and negotiated with the
Portuguese authorities, duly involving the main political parties, by the Commission in liaison with the ECB, and

the IMF.


1. Fiscal policy

Reduce the Government deficit to below EUR 10,068 million (equivalent to 5.9% of GDP
based on current projections) in 2011, EUR 7,645 million (4.5% of GDP) in 2012 and EUR
5,224 million (3.0% of GDP) in 2013 by means of high-quality permanent measures and
minimising the impact of consolidation on vulnerable groups; bring the government debt-to-
GDP ratio on a downward path as of 2013; maintain fiscal consolidation over the medium
term up to a balanced budgetary position, notably by containing expenditure growth; support
competitiveness by means of a budget-neutral adjustment of the tax structure.

Fiscal policy in 2011

1.1. The Government achieves a general government deficit of no more than EUR 10,068
millions in 2011. [Q4-2011]
1.2. Over the remainder of the year, the government will rigorously implement the Budget
Law for 2011 and the additional fiscal consolidation measures introduced before May 2011.
Progress will be assessed against the (cumulative) quarterly deficit ceilings in the
Memorandum of Economic and Financial Policies (MEFP), including the Technical
Memorandum of Understanding (TMU). [Q3 and Q4-2011]
Fiscal policy in 2012

1.3.On the basis of a proposal developed by the time of the first review, the 2012 Budget will
include a budget neutral recalibration of the tax system with a view to lower labour costs and
boost competitiveness [October 2011].

1.4.The government will achieve a general government deficit of no more than EUR 7,645
millions in 2012. [Q4-2012]

1.5. Throughout the year, the government will rigorously implement the Budget Law for
2012. Progress will be assessed against the (cumulative) quarterly deficit ceilings in the
Memorandum of Economic and Financial Policies (MEFP), including the Technical
Memorandum of Understanding (TMU). [Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4-2012]
1.6. The following measures will be carried out with the 2012 Budget Law [Q4-2011], unless
otherwise specified:

1.7.Improve the working of the central administration by eliminating redundancies, increasing
efficiency, reducing and eliminating services that do not represent a cost-effective use of
public money. This should yield annual savings worth at least EUR 500 million. Detailed
plans will be presented by the Portuguese authorities and will be assessed by Q1-2012; the
budgetary impacts will spread to 2014. To this end, the government will:

i. reduce the number of services while maintaining quality of provision;
ii. create a single tax office and promoting services' sharing between different
parts of the general government;


reorganise local governments and the provision of central administration
services at local level;
regularly assess the value for money of the various public services that are part
of the government sector as defined for national accounts purposes;
v. promote mobility of staff in central, regional and local administrations;
reduce transfers from the State to public bodies and other entities;
revise compensation schemes and fringe benefits in public bodies and entities
that independently set their own remuneration schemes;
viii. reduce subsidies to private producers of goods and services.
1.8.Reduce costs in the area of education, with the aim of saving EUR 195 million by
rationalising the school network by creating school clusters; lowering staff needs, centralising
procurement; and reducing and rationalising transfers to private schools in association

1.9. Ensure that the aggregate public sector wage bill as a share of GDP decreases in 2012 and
2013 [Q2-2012 for assessment; Q2-2013 to complete process].
Limit staff admissions in public administration to achieve annual decreases in
2012-2014 of 1% per year in the staff of central administration and 2% in local
and regional administration. [Q3-2011]
Freeze wages in the government sector in nominal terms in 2012 and 2013 and
constrain promotions.
Reduce the overall budgetary cost of health benefits schemes for government
employees schemes (ADSE, ADM and SAD) lowering the employerís
contribution and adjusting the scope of health benefits, with savings of EUR 100
million in 2012.
1.10. Control costs in health sector on the basis of detailed measures listed below under
'Health-care system', achieving savings worth EUR 550 million;
1.11. Reduce pensions above EUR 1,500 according to the progressive rates applied to the
wages of the public sector as of January 2011, with the aim of yielding savings of at least
EUR 445 million;
1.12. Suspend application of pension indexation rules and freeze pensions, except for the
lowest pensions, in 2012;
1.13. Reform unemployment insurance on the basis of detailed measures listed below under
'Labour market and education', yielding medium-term savings of around EUR 150 million;
1.14. Reduce transfers to local and regional authorities by at least EUR 175 million with a
view to having this subsector contributing to fiscal consolidation;
1.15. Reduce costs in other public bodies and entities by at least EUR 110 million;
1.16. Reduce costs in State-owned enterprises (SOEs) with the aim of saving at least EUR
515 million by means of:
i. sustaining an average permanent reduction in operating costs by at least 15%;
tightening compensation schemes and fringe benefits;
rationalisation of investment plans for the medium term;

increase their revenues from market activities.
1.17. Permanently reduce capital expenditure by EUR 500 millions by prioritising investment
projects and making more intensive use of funding opportunities provided by EU structural

1.18. Introduction of a standstill rule to all tax expenditure, blocking the creation of new
items of tax expenditure and the enlargement of existing items. The rule will apply to all
kinds of tax expenditure, of a temporary or permanent nature, at the central, regional or local
1.19. Reduction of corporate tax deductions and special regimes, with a yield of at least EUR
150 million in 2012. Measures include:
i. abolishing all reduced corporate income tax rates;
ii. limiting the deductions of losses in previous years according to taxable matter and
reducing the carry-forward period to 3-year;
iii. reducing tax allowances and revoking subjective tax exemptions;
iv. curbing tax benefits, namely those subject to the sunset clause of the Tax Benefit
Code, and strengthening company car taxation rules;
v. proposing amendments to the regional finance law to limit the reduction of
corporate income tax in autonomous regions to a maximum of 20% vis-‡-vis the
rates applicable in the mainland.

1.20. Reduction of personal income tax benefits and deductions, with a yield of at least EUR
150 million in 2012. Measures include:
capping the maximum deductible tax allowances according to tax bracket with
lower caps applied to higher incomes and a zero cap for the highest income
applying separate caps on individual categories by (a) introducing a cap on health
expenses; (b) eliminating the deductibility of mortgage principal and phasing out
the deductibility of rents and of mortgage interest payments for owner-occupied
housing; eliminate interest income deductibility for new mortgages (c) reducing
the items eligible for tax deductions and revising the taxation of income in kind;
proposing amendments to the regional finance law to limit the reduction of
personal income tax in autonomous regions to a maximum of 20% vis-‡-vis the
rates applicable in the mainland.
1.21. Apply personal income taxes to all types of cash social transfers and ensure convergence
of personal income tax deductions applied to pensions and labour income with the aim of
raising at least EUR 150 million in 2012.
1.22. Changes in property taxation to raise revenue by at least EUR 250 million by reducing
substantially the temporary exemptions for owner-occupied dwellings. Transfers from the
central to local governments will be reviewed to ensure that the additional revenues are fully
used for fiscal consolidation.
1.23. Raise VAT revenues to achieve a yield of at least EUR 410 million for a full year by:
reducing VAT exemptions;

moving categories of goods and services from the reduced and intermediate
VAT tax rates to higher ones;
proposing amendments to the regional finance law to limit the reduction of
VAT in the autonomous regions to a maximum of 20% vis-‡-vis the rates
applicable in the mainland.
1.24. Increase excise taxes to raise at least EUR 250 million in 2012. In particular by:
raising car sales tax and cutting car tax exemptions;
raising taxes on tobacco products;
indexing excise taxes to core inflation;
introducing electricity excise taxes in compliance with EU Directive 2003/96.
1.25. Increase efforts to fight tax evasion, fraud and informality to raise revenue by at least
EUR 175 million in 2012.
Fiscal policy in 2013

1.26. The government achieves a general government deficit of no more than EUR 5,224
million in 2013. ). [Q4-2013]
1.27. Throughout the year, the government will rigorously implement the Budget Law for
2013. Progress will be assessed against the (cumulative) quarterly deficit ceilings in the
Memorandum of Economic and Financial Policies (MEFP), including the Technical
Memorandum of Understanding (TMU). [Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4-2013]
1.28. The following measures will be carried out with the 2013 Budget Law [Q4-2012],
unless otherwise specified:

1.29. Further deepening of the measures introduced in the 2012 Budget Law with a view of
reducing expenditure in the area of:
central administration functioning: EUR 500 million. Detailed plans will be
presented and assessed before Q3-2012;
education and school network rationalization: EUR 175 million;
wage bill: annual decreases of 1% per year in headcounts of central
administration and 2% in local and regional administrations;
health benefits schemes for government employees schemes: EUR 100 million.
health sector: EUR 375 million;
transfers to local and regional authorities: EUR 175 million;
reduce further costs in other public bodies and entities, and in SOEs: EUR 175
viii. capital expenditure: EUR 350 million;
maintain the suspension of pension indexation rules except for the lowest
pensions in 2013.

1.30. In addition, the government will extend the use of means testing and better target social
support achieving a reduction in social benefits expenditure of at least EUR 350 million.

1.31. Further deepening of the measures introduced in 2012 Budget Law, leading to extra
revenue in the following areas:
i. corporate tax bases and reduce tax benefits and tax deductions: EUR 150
ii. personal income tax benefits and tax deductions: EUR 175 million;
iii. taxation of all types of cash social transfers and convergence of personal
income tax deductions for pensions and labour income: EUR 150 million;
iv. excise taxes: EUR 150 million.

1.32. Update the notional property value of real estate for tax purposes to raise revenue by at
least EUR 150 million in 2013. Transfers from the central to local governments will be
reviewed to ensure that the additional revenues are fully used for fiscal consolidation.
Fiscal policy in 2014

1.33. The government will aim at achieving a general government deficit of no more than
EUR 4,521 millions in 2014. The necessary measures will be defined in the 2014 Budget
Law. [Q4-2013]
1.34. Throughout the year, the Government will rigorously implement the Budget Law for
2014. Progress will be assessed against the (cumulative) quarterly deficit ceilings in the
Memorandum of Economic and Financial Policies (MEFP), including the Technical
Memorandum of Understanding (TMU). [Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4-2013]
1.35. With the 2014 Budget Law, the Government will further deepen the measures
introduced in the 2012 and 2013 with a view in particular to broadening tax bases and
moderating primary expenditure to achieve a declining ratio of government expenditure over
2. Financial sector regulation and supervision

Preserve financial sector stability; maintain liquidity and support a balanced and orderly
deleveraging in the banking sector; strengthen banking regulation and supervision; bring to
closure the Banco PortuguÍs de NegÛcios case and streamline state-owned Caixa Geral de
DepÛsitos; strengthen the bank resolution framework and reinforce the Deposit Guarantee
Fund; reinforce the corporate and household insolvency frameworks.

Maintaining liquidity in the banking sector

2.1. Subject to approval under EU competition rules, the authorities are committed to
facilitate the issuance of government guaranteed bank bonds for an amount of up to EUR 35
billion, including the existing package of support measures.

Deleveraging in the banking sector

2.2. Banco de Portugal (BdP) and the ECB, in consultation with the European Commission
(EC) and the IMF, will include clear periodic target leverage ratios and will ask banks to
devise by end-June 2011 institution-specific medium-term funding plans to achieve a stable
market-based funding position. Quarterly reviews will be conducted in consultation with the
EC and the IMF, and will examine the feasibility of individual banksí plans and their
implications for leverage ratios, as well as the impact on credit aggregates and the economy as
a whole, and the BdP will then request adjustments in the plans as needed.
Capital buffers

2.3. BdP will direct all banking groups supervised by BdP to reach a core Tier 1 capital ratio
of 9 percent by end-2011 and 10 percent at the latest by end-2012 and maintain it thereafter.
If needed, using its Pillar 2 powers, the BdP will also require some banks, based on their
specific risk profile, to reach these higher capital levels on an accelerated schedule, taking
into account the indications of the solvency assessment framework described below. Banks
will be required to present plans to BdP by end of June 2011 on how they intend to reach the
new capital requirements through market solutions.
2.4. In the event that banks cannot reach the targets on time, ensuring higher capital
standards might temporarily require public provision of equity for the private banks. To that
effect, the authorities will augment the bank solvency support facility, in line with EU state
aid rules, with resources of up to EUR 12 billion provided under the programme, that takes
into account the importance of the new capital requirements and which will be designed in a
way that preserves the control of the management of the banks by their non-state owners
during an initial phase and allow them the option of buying back the governmentís stake. The
banks benefitting from equity injections will be subjected to specific management rules and
restrictions, and to a restructuring process in line with EU competition and state aid
requirements, that will provide the incentive to give priority to market-based solutions.
Caixa Geral de DepÛsitos (CGD)

2.5. The state-owned CGD group will be streamlined to increase the capital base of its core
banking arm as needed. The CGD bank is expected to raise its capital to the new required
level from internal group resources, and improve the group's governance. This will include a
more ambitious schedule toward the already announced sale of the insurance arm of the
group, a program for the gradual disposal of all non-core subsidiaries, and, if needed a
reduction of activities abroad.
Monitoring of bank solvency and liquidity

2.6. The BdP is stepping up its solvency and deleveraging assessment framework for the
system as a whole and for each of the eight largest banks, and will seek an evaluation of the
enhanced assessment framework by end-September 2011 by a joint team of experts from the
EC, the ECB and the IMF.
2.7. By end-June 2011, the BdP will also design a program of special on-site inspections to
validate the data on assets that banks provide as inputs to the solvency assessment, This
program will be part of a capacity building technical cooperation project put in place with the
support of the EC, the ECB, and the IMF that will bring together Portuguese supervisors,
cooperating central banks and/or supervisory agencies, external auditors and other experts as

2.8. The BdP will provide quarterly updates of banksí potential capital needs going forward
and check that their deleveraging process remains on track and properly balanced. Whenever
the assessment framework will indicate that a bankís core Tier 1 ratio might fall under 6
percent under a stress scenario over the course of the program, the BdP, using its Pillar 2
powers, will ask it to take measures to strengthen its capital base.
Banking regulation and supervision

2.9. BdP will ensure by the end of September 2011 that the disclosure of non-performing
loans will be improved by adding a new ratio aligned with international practices to the
current ratio that covers only overdue loan payments. BdP will intensify on-site inspections
and verification of data accuracy with technical assistance from the IMF, in the context of the
data verification exercise for the new solvency assessment framework. BdP will allocate new
resources to the recruitment of additional specialist banking supervisors. Close coordination
will be maintained between home and host country supervisors within the EU framework for
cross-border banking supervision.
Banco PortuguÍs de NegÛcios

2.10. The authorities are launching a process to sell Banco PortuguÍs de NegÛcios (BPN) on
an accelerated schedule and without a minimum price. To this end, a new plan is submitted to
the EC for approval under competition rules. The target is to find a buyer by the end of July
2011 at the latest.
2.11. To facilitate the sale, the 3 existing special purpose vehicles holding its non-performing
and non-core assets have been separated from BPN, and more assets could be transferred into
these vehicles as part of the negotiations with prospective buyers. BPN is also launching
another program of more ambitious cost cutting measures with a view to increase its
attractiveness to investors
2.12. Once a solution has been found, CGDís state guaranteed claims on BPN and all related
special purpose vehicles will be taken over by the state according to a timetable to be defined
at that time.
Bank resolution framework

2.13. The authorities will amend legislation concerning credit institutions in consultation with
the EC, the ECB and the IMF by end-November 2011 to, inter alia, impose early reporting
obligations based on clear triggers and penalties. BdP will be authorised to take remedial
measures to promote implementation of a recovery plan. Credit institutions with systemic
risks will be required to prepare contingency resolution plans) subject to regular review.
2.14. The amendments will introduce a regime for the resolution of distressed credit
institutions as a going concern under official control to promote financial stability and protect
depositors. The regime will set out clear triggers for its initiation, and restructuring tools for
the resolution authorities shall include recapitalization without shareholder pre-emptive rights,
transfer of assets and liabilities to other credit institutions and a bridge bank.
The Deposit Guarantee Fund

2.15. The authorities will strengthen the legislation on the Deposit Guarantee Fund (FGD)
and on the Guarantee Fund for Mutual Agricultural Credit Institutions (FGCAM), in
consultation with EC, the ECB and the IMF, by end-2011. These funds' functions will be re8

examined to strengthen protection of guaranteed depositors. These funds should however
retain the ability to fund the resolution of distressed credit institutions and in particular the
transfer of guaranteed deposits to another credit institution but not to recapitalise them. Such
financial assistance shall be capped at the amount of guaranteed deposits that would have to
be paid out in liquidation. This should be permissible only if it does not prejudice their ability
to perform their primary function.

2.16. The Insolvency Law will be amended by the end of November 2011 to provide that
guaranteed depositors and/or the funds (either directly or through subrogation) will be granted
a higher priority ranking over unsecured creditors in the insolvent state of a credit institution.
Corporate and household debt restructuring framework

2.17. To better facilitate effective rescue of viable firms, the Insolvency Law will be amended
by end November 2011 with technical assistance from the IMF, to, inter alia, introduce fast
track court approval procedures for restructuring plans.
2.18. General principles on voluntary out of court restructuring in line with international best
practices will be issued by end-September 2011.
2.19. The authorities will also take the necessary actions to authorise the tax and social
security administrations to use a wider range of restructuring tools based on clearly defined
criteria in cases where other creditors also agree to restructure their claims, and review the tax
law with a view to removing impediments to voluntary debt restructuring.
2.20. The personal insolvency procedures will be amended to better support rehabilitation of
financially responsible individuals, which will balance the interests of creditors and debtors.
2.21. The authorities will launch a campaign to raise public and stakeholder awareness of the
restructuring tools available for early rescue of viable firms through, e.g., training and new
information means.
Monitoring of corporate and household indebtedness

2.22. The authorities will prepare quarterly reports on corporate and household sectors
including an assessment of their funding pressures and debt refinancing activities. The
authorities will assess guarantee programmes currently in place and evaluate market-based
financing alternatives. A task force will be constituted to prepare contingency plans to
efficiently deal with the challenges posed by high corporate and household sectors
indebtedness. These enhanced monitoring actions will put be in place by end-September
2011 in consultation with the EC, the IMF and the ECB.
3. Fiscal-structural measures

Improve the efficiency of the public administration by eliminating redundancies, simplifying
procedures and reorganising services; regulate the creation and functioning of all public
entities (e.g. enterprises, foundations, associations); streamline the budgetary process through
the newly approved legal framework, including by adapting accordingly the local and
regional financial legal frameworks; strengthen risk management, accountability, reporting
and monitoring.


Public Financial Management framework

To strengthen the public financial management framework the Government will take the
following measures:


Approve a standard definition of arrears and commitments. [Q2-2011]
3.2. Conduct and publish a comprehensive survey of arrears covering all categories of
expenditure payables as at the end of March 2011. All general government entities and SOEs
classified outside the general government will be covered by this survey. [Q3-2011]
3.3. Enhance the existing monthly reporting on budgetary execution on a cash basis for the
general government, including on a consolidated basis. The monthly reporting perimeter
currently includes the State, Other public bodies and entities, Social Security, regional and
local governments and it will be progressively expanded to include all SOEs and PPPs
reclassified within the general government and local governments. [Q3-2011]
3.4. The existing annual report on tax expenditures will be improved, starting with the 2012
budget, in line with international best practices. The report will cover central, regional and
local administrations. Technical assistance may be provided if necessary. [Q3-2011]
3.5. Develop intra-annual targets, and corrective measures in case of deviation from targets,
for [Q3-2011]:
internal monthly cash balance, expenditure, revenue targets for the general
government as defined in national accounts;
public quarterly balance targets for the general government as defined in
national accounts.
3.6. Implement any changes to the budget execution rules and procedures necessary to align
with the standard definition of arrears and commitments. Meanwhile, existing commitment
control procedures will be enforced for all types of expenditure across the general
government. Technical assistance may be provided if necessary.[Q4-2011]
3.7. Following the survey, prepare a consolidated monthly report on arrears for the general
government sector. The general government perimeter will be defined as in national accounts.

3.8. Publish quarterly accounts for State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) at the latest 45 days
after the end of the quarter. It should start with the 30 largest SOEs that are consolidated in
the general government but as a general rule all SOEs should follow the same reporting
standards. [Q4-2011]
3.9. Publish information on: number of general government staff on a quarterly basis (no
later than 30 days after the end of the quarter); Stock and flows over the relevant period per
Ministry or employment entity (i.e. new hiring, retirement flows, and exit to other
government service, private sector or unemployment); average wage, allowances and
bonuses. [Q1-2012]

3.10. Approve a standard definition of contingent liabilities. [Q2-2011]
3.11. Publish a comprehensive report on fiscal risks each year as part of the budget, starting
with the 2012 budget. The report should outline general fiscal risks and specific contingent

liabilities to which the Government may be exposed, including those arising from Public-
Private Partnerships (PPPs), SOEs and explicit guarantees to the banks. [Q3-2011]

Budgetary framework

3.12. Publish a fiscal strategy document for the general government by July 2011 and
annually thereafter in April for the Stability Programme. The document will specify 4-year
medium-term economic and fiscal forecasts and 4-year costs of new policy decisions. Budgets
will include a reconciliation of revisions to the 4 year fiscal forecasts attributable to policy
decisions and parameter revisions e.g. policy decisions, changes in the macroeconomic
3.13. Ensure full implementation of the Budgetary Framework Law adopting the necessary
legal changes, including to the regional and local finance laws: [Q3-2011]
i. The general government perimeter will cover the State, Other public bodies
and entities, Social Security, SOEs and PPPs reclassified within the general
government and local and regional administrations.
ii. Define in detail the proposed characteristics of the medium-term budgetary
framework, including medium-term fiscal strategy, decision-making and
prioritisation process, carry over rules, commitment controls; and appropriate
contingency reserves and related access rules. [Q3-2011]

3.14. A proposal to revise the local and regional finance laws will be submitted to Parliament
in order to fully adapt the local and regional financing framework to the principles and rules
adopted by the recently revised Budgetary Framework Law, namely in what concerns (i) the
inclusion of all relevant public entities in the perimeter of local and regional government; (ii)
the multi-annual framework with expenditure, budget balance and indebtedness rules, and
programme budgeting; and (iii) the interaction with the function of the Fiscal Council [Q42011].
3.15. The forecast underpinning the preparation of the budget and of the fiscal strategy
document should be published, including supporting analysis and underlying assumptions.

3.16. Adopt the Statutes of the Fiscal Council, based on the working group report of 6 April
2011. The Council will be operational in time for the 2012 budget. [Q3-2011]
Public Private Partnerships

The Government will:

3.17. Avoid engaging in any new PPP agreement before the completion of the reviews on
existing PPPs and the legal and institutional reforms proposed (see below). [Ongoing]
3.18. Perform with the technical assistance from EC and the IMF, an initial assessment of at
least the 20 most significant PPP contracts, including the major Estradas de Portugal PPPs,
covering a wide range of sectors. [Q3-2011]
3.19. The Government will recruit a top tier international accounting firm to undertake a
more detailed study of PPPs in consultation with INE and the Ministry of Finance. The
review will identify and, where practicable, quantify major contingent liabilities and any
related amounts that may be payable by the Government . It will assess the probability of any
payments by Government in relation to the contingent liabilities and quantify such amounts.

The study will assess the feasibility to renegotiate any PPP or concession contract to reduce
the Government financial obligations. All PPPs and concession contracts will be available for
these reviews. [Q4-2011]

3.20. Put in place a strengthened legal and institutional framework, within the Ministry of
Finance, for assessing fiscal risks ex-ante of engaging into PPP, concessions and other public
investments, as well as for monitoring their execution. The Court of Auditors must be
informed of this ex-ante risk assessment. Technical assistance may be provided if necessary.

3.21. Enhance the annual PPP and concessions report prepared by the Ministry of Finance in
July with a comprehensive assessment of the fiscal risks stemming from PPPs and
concessions. The report will provide information and analysis at sectoral level. The annual
review of PPPs and concessions should be accompanied by an analysis of credit flows
channelled to PPPs through banks (loans and securities other than shares) by industry and an
impact assessment on credit allocation and crowding out effects. This particular element
should be done in liaison with the Bank of Portugal. [Q2-2012]
State-owned enterprises2

3.22. Prepare a comprehensive assessment of the tariff structure of State-owned enterprises
(SOEs) to reduce the degree of subsidisation. Review the level of service provisions of SOEs.

3.23. Review ongoing plans to reduce operational costs by the end of 2011 by at least 15% on
average compared with 2009, proposing company specific cuts that are consistent with a
realistic economic and financial assessment. [Q4-2011]
3.24. Apply tighter debt ceilings to SOEs from 2012 onwards. [Q3-2011]
3.25. Prepare a plan to strengthen governance of SOEs in accordance with international best
practices. The plan will review the existing shareholder approach, giving the Ministry of
Finance a decisive role in financial matters of the enterprises. [Q4-2011]
3.26. Prepare a report reviewing the operations and finances of SOEs at central, regional and
local government levels. The report will assess these companiesí business financial prospects,
the potential exposure of the government and scope for orderly privatisation. The Government
will adopt the necessary legal changes to fulfil this requirement. Technical assistance will be
provided. [Q1-2012]
3.27. No additional SOEs at central government level will be created until this review is
completed. Given the financial impact of these decisions, the Government will submit to
Parliament a draft law so that this limitation will also be applicable to local authorities. The
Government will promote the initiatives needed so that the same objective is achieved by the
regions. [Q1-2012]
3.28. The Government will submit to Parliament a draft law to regulate the creation and the
functioning of SOEs at the central and local levels. The law will enhance the monitoring
powers of the central administration over all SOEs. In addition, the timing and content of
financial and operational reporting will be defined. The decisions adopted at central level to
improve the efficiency of the enterprises while reducing their financial burden will be
implemented at all SOEs, taking into account their specificities. The Government will
State-owned enterprises comprise those pertaining to central, local and regional administration.


promote the initiatives needed so that the same objective is achieved by the regions. [Q12012]

3.29. The annual SOEs report prepared by the MoF in July 2011 will include a
comprehensive fiscal risk report detailing and analysing all liabilities (explicit and implicit) of

3.30. The Government will accelerate its privatisation programme. The existing plan,
elaborated through 2013, covers transport (Aeroportos de Portugal, TAP, and freight branch
of CP), energy (GALP, EDP, and REN), communications (Correios de Portugal), and
insurance (Caixa Seguros), as well as a number of smaller firms. The plan targets front-loaded
proceeds of about Ä[5.5] billion through the end of the program, with only partial divestment
envisaged for all large firms. The Government commits to go even further, by pursuing a
rapid full divestment of public sector shares in EDP and REN, and is hopeful that market
conditions will permit sale of these two companies, as well as of TAP, by the end of the
2011. The Government will identify, by the time of the second review, two additional large
enterprises for privatisation by end-2012. An updated privatisation plan will be prepared by
March 2012.

3.31. Prepare an inventory of assets, including real estate, owned by municipalities and
regional governments, examining the scope for privatisation. [Q2-2012]
Revenue administration

3.32. The Government will merge the tax administration, customs administration and the
information technology service DGITA in a single entity. [Q1-2012] and study the costs and
benefits of including the revenue collection units of the social security administration in the
merge [Q3-2011]. It will proceed with the broader merge if the assessment is favourable [Q12012];
3.33. Further comprehensive reform plans will be prepared by October 2011, including the
following elements: [Q4-2011]
i. Establishing special chambers within the tax tribunals, specialized to handle
large cases and assisted by a specialised technical staff pool; [Q1-2012]
ii. Reducing the number of municipal offices by at least 20 % per year in 2012
and 2013 [Q4-2012 and Q4-2013]
iii. Increase in the resources devoted to auditing in the tax administration to at
least 30% of the total staff, mostly through reallocations of staff within the tax
administration and other parts of the public administration. The threshold
should be attained by Q4-2012.

3.34. The Government will address the bottlenecks in the tax appeal system by:
Reviewing the assessment of audit performance based on both qualitative and
quantitative indicators; [Q3-2011]
Applying interest charges on the outstanding debt over the whole appeal period
using an interest rate above market levels. Impose a special statutory interest
on non-compliance with a tax court decision. [Q3-2011]

iii. Implement the new tax arbitration law by [Q3-2011]
iv. Establishing an integrated IT system between the revenue administration and
the tax courts; [Q4-2011]
v. Setting up a temporary task force of judges by Q2-2011 to clear cases worth

above EUR 1 million by [Q4-2012];

3.35. The Government will submit to Parliament a law to strengthen the auditing and
enforcement powers of the central tax administration to exercise control over the whole
territory of the Republic of Portugal including currently exempt tax regimes and to reserve to
the central administration the power to issue interpretative rulings on taxes with national
scope in order to ensure its uniform application. [Q4-2011]
3.36. Prepare a report assessing the current state of the information systems in the tax
administration and proposing reforms. [Q3-2011]
3.37. The tax administration will prepare a comprehensive strategic plan for 2012-2014. The
plan will include concrete actions to combat tax fraud and evasion, to strengthen audit and
enforce collection based on risk management techniques. [Q4-2011]
Public administration

The Government will take the following measures to increase the efficiency and costeffectiveness
of the public administration:

Central, regional and local administration

3.38. Reduce management positions and administrative units by at least 15% in the central
administration. [Q4-2011]
3.39. In view of improving the efficiency of the central administration and rationalising the
use of resources, implement a second phase of the public administration restructuring
programme (PRACE 2007). [Q4-2011]
3.40. In view of improving the efficiency of local administration and rationalising the use of
resources, the Government will submit to Parliament a draft law by Q4-2011 so that each
municipality will have to present its plan to attain the target of reducing their management
positions and administrative units by at least 15% by the end of 2012. [Q2-2012] In what
concerns regions, the Government will promote the initiatives needed [Q4-2011] so that each
region will present its plan to attain the same target.
3.41. In conjunction with the review of SOEs (see above), prepare a detailed cost/benefit
analysis of all public and quasi-public entities, including foundations, associations and other
bodies, across all levels of government. [Q4-2011] Based on the results of this analysis, the
administration (central, regional or local) responsible for the public entity will decide to close
or to maintain it in respect of the law (see below). [Q2-2012]
3.42. Regulate by law the creation and the functioning of foundations, associations, and
similar bodies by the central and local administration. This law, which will also facilitate the
closure of existing entities when warranted, will be prepared in coordination with a similar
framework to be defined for SOEs. The law will define the monitoring and reporting
mechanisms and evaluation performance. In addition, the Government will promote the
initiatives needed [Q4-2011] so that the same objective is achieved by the regions.

3.43. Reorganise local government administration. There are currently around 308
municipalities and 4,259 parishes. By July 2012, the government will develop a consolidation
plan to reorganize and significantly reduce the number of such entities. The Government will
implement these plans based on agreement with EC and IMF staff. These changes, which will
come into effect by the beginning of the next local election cycle, will enhance service
delivery, improve efficiency, and reduce costs.
3.44. Carry out a study to identify potential duplication of activities and other inefficiencies
between the central administration, local administration and locally-based central
administration services. [Q4-2011] Based on this analysis, reform the existing framework to
eliminate the identified inefficiencies. [Q2-2012]
Shared services

3.45. Develop the use of shared services in the central administration by fully implementing
the ongoing projects and by regularly assessing the scope for further integration:
i. Fully implement the strategy of shared services in the
(GeRFIP) and human resources (GeRHup). [Q2-2012]
area of financial
ii. Rationalise the use of IT resources within the central administration by
implementing shared services and reducing the number of IT entities in
individual Ministries or other public entities. [Q4-2012]

3.46. Reduce the number of local branches of line ministries (e.g. tax, social security, justice).
The services should be merged in citizensí shops covering a greater geographical area and
developing further the e-administration over the duration of the programme. [Q4-2013]
Human resources

3.47. Prepare a comprehensive plan to promote flexibility, adaptability and mobility of human
resources across the administration, including by providing training where appropriate. [Q42011]
3.48. Limit staff admissions in public administration to achieve annual decreases in 20122014
of 1% per year in the staff of central administration and 2% in local and regional
administrations. The Government will submit to Parliament a draft law to implement this
measure at local administration level and will promote the initiatives needed so that each
region will present its plan to achieve the same target. [Q3-2011]
Health care system


Improve efficiency and effectiveness in the health care system, inducing a more rational use
of services and control of expenditures; generate additional savings in the area of
pharmaceuticals to reduce the public spending on pharmaceutical to 1.25 per cent of GDP by
end 2012 and to about 1 per cent of GDP in 2013 (in line with EU average); generate
additional savings in hospital operating costs.


The Government will take the following measures to reform the health system:


3.49. Review and increase overall NHS moderating fees (taxas moderadoras) through:
i. a substantial revision of existing exemption categories, including stricter
means-testing in cooperation with Minister of labour and social affairs; [Q32011]
ii. increase of moderating fees in certain services while ensuring that primary care
moderating fees are lower than those for outpatient specialist care visits and
lower than emergency visits; [Q3-2011]
iii. legislate automatic indexation to inflation of NHS moderating fees. [Q4-2011]

3.50. Cut substantially (by two thirds overall) tax allowances for healthcare, including private
insurance. [Q3-2011]
3.51. To achieve a self sustainable model for health-benefits schemes for civil servants, the
overall budgetary cost of existing schemes ñ ADSE, ADM (Armed Forces) and SAD (Police
Services) -will be reduced by 30% in 2012 and a further 20% in 2013, at all levels of general
government. Further reductions at a similar pace will follow in the subsequent years towards
having them self-financed by 2016. The budgetary costs of these schemes will be reduced by
lowering the employerís contribution and adjusting the scope of health benefits. [Q4-2011]
3.52. Produce a medium-term health care budgetary framework, covering at least 3 to 5 years.

Pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals

3.53. Set the maximum price of the first generic introduced in the market to 60% of the
branded product with similar active substance. [Q3-2011]
3.54. Revise the existing reference-pricing system based on international prices by changing
the countries of reference to the three EU countries with the lowest price levels or countries
with comparable GDP per capita levels. [Q4-2011]
Prescription and monitoring of prescription

3.55. Make electronic prescription for medicines and diagnostic covered by public
reimbursement fully compulsory for physicians in both the public and private sector. [Q32011]
3.56. Improve the monitoring system of prescription of medicines and diagnostic and set in
place a systematic assessment by individual doctor in terms of volume and value, vis-‡-vis
prescription guidelines and peers. Feedback is to be provided to each physician on a regular
basis (e.g. quarterly), in particular on prescription of costliest and most used medicines,
starting from Q4-2011. The assessment will be done through a dedicated unit under the
Ministry of Health such as the Centro de ConferÍncia de Facturas. Sanctions and penalties
will be envisaged and enforced as a follow up to the assessment. [Q3-2011]
3.57. Induce physicians at all levels of the system, both public and private, to prescribe
generic medicines and the less costly available branded product. [Q3-2011]

3.58. Establish clear rules for the prescription of drugs and the realisation of complementary
diagnostic exams (prescription guidelines for physicians) on the basis of international
prescription guidelines. [Q4-2011]
3.59. Remove all effective entry barriers for generic medicines, in particular by reducing
administrative/legal hurdles in order to speed up the use reimbursement of generics. [Q42011]
Pharmacies sector

3.60. Effectively implement the existing legislation regulating pharmacies. [Q4-2011]
3.61. Change the calculation of profit margin into a regressive mark-up and a flat fee for
wholesale companies and pharmacies on the basis of the experience in other Member States.
The new system should ensure a reduction in public spending on pharmaceuticals and
encourage the sales of less expensive pharmaceuticals. The aim is that lower profits will
contribute at least EUR 50 million to the reduction in public expense with drugs distribution.

3.62. If the new system of calculation of profit margin will not produce the expected savings
in the distribution profits, introduce a contribution in the form of an average rebate (pay-back)
which will be calculated on the mark-up. The rebate will reduce the mark-up by at least 3
percentage points. The rebate will be collected by the Government on a monthly basis through
the Conference Center of Invoices, preserving the profitability of small pharmacies in remote
areas with low turnover. [Q1 -2012]
Centralised purchasing and procurement

3.63. Set up the legislative and administrative framework for a centralised procurement
system for the purchase of medical goods in the NHS (equipments, appliances,
pharmaceuticals), through the recently created Central Purchasing Authority (SPMS), in order
to reduce costs through price-volume agreements and fight waste. [Q3-2011]
3.64. Finalise the uniform coding system and a common registry for medical supplies
developed by the INFARMED and SPMS based on international experience. Regularly
update the registry. [Q4-2011]
3.65. Take measures to increase competition among private providers and reduce by at least
10 per cent the overall spending (including fees) of the NHS with private providers delivering
diagnostic and therapeutical services to the NHS by end 2011 and by an additional 10% by
end 2012. [Q4-2011]
3.66. Implement the centralised purchasing of medical goods through the recently created
Central Purchasing Authority (SPMS), using the uniform coding system for medical supplies
and pharmaceuticals. [Q1-2012]
3.67. Introduce a regular revision (at least every two years) of the fees paid to private
providers with the aim of reducing the cost of more mature diagnostic and therapeutical
services. [Q1-2012]
3.68. Assess compliance with European competition rules of the provision of services in the
private healthcare sector and guarantee increasing competition among private providers [Q12012]

Primary care services

3.69. The Government proceeds with the reinforcement of primary care services so as to
further reduce unnecessary visits to specialists and emergencies and to improve care
coordination through:
i. increasing the number of USF (Unidades de Sa˙de Familiares) units
contracting with regional authorities (ARSs) using a mix of salary and
performance-related payments as currently the case. Make sure that the new
system leads to reduction in costs and more effective provision; [Q3-2011]
ii. set-up a mechanism to guarantee the presence of family doctors in needed
areas to induce a more even distribution of family doctors across the country.

Hospital services

3.70. Set out a binding and ambitious timetable to clear all arrears (accounts payable to
domestic suppliers past due date by 90 days) and introduce standardized commitment control
procedures for all entities to prevent the re-emergence of arrears. [Q3-2011]
3.71. Provide detailed description of measures aimed at achieving a reduction of EUR 200
million in the operational costs of hospitals in 2012 (EUR 100 million in 2012 in addition to
savings of over EUR 100 million already in 2011), including reduction in the number of
management staff, as a result of concentration and rationalisation in state hospitals and health
centres. [Q3-2011]
3.72. Continue the publication of clinical guidelines and set in place an auditing system of
their implementation. [Q3-2011]
3.73. Improve selection criteria and adopt measures to ensure a more transparent selection of
the chairs and members of hospital boards. Members will be required by law to be persons of
recognised standing in health, management and health administration. [Q4-2011]
3.74. Set up a system for comparing hospital performance (benchmarking) on the basis of a
comprehensive set of indicators and produce regular annual reports, the first one to be
published by end 2012. [Q1-2012]
3.75. Ensure full interoperability of IT systems in hospital, in order for the ACSS to gather
real time information on hospital activities and to produce monthly reports to the Ministry of
Health and Ministry of Finance. [Q1-2012]
3.76. Continue with the reorganisation and rationalisation of the hospital network through
specialisation and concentration of hospital and emergency services and joint management
(building on the Decree-Law 30/2011) joint operation of hospitals. These improvements will
deliver additional cuts in operating costs by at least 5 per cent in 2013. A detailed action plan
is published by 30 November 2012 and its implementation is finalised by the first quarter
2013. [Q2-2012]
3.77. Move some hospital outpatient services to primary care units (USF). [Q2-2012]
3.78. Annually update the inventory of all practising doctors by specialty, age, region, health
centre and hospital, public and private sector so as to be able to identify practising,
professional and licensed physicians and current and future staff needs by the above
categories. [Q3-2011]

3.79. Prepare regular annual reports, the first to be published by the end of March 2012,
presenting plans for the allocation of human resources in the period up to 2014. The Report
specifies plans to reallocate qualified and support staff within the NHS. [Q3-2011]
3.80. Introduce rules to increase mobility of healthcare staff (including doctors) within and
across health regions. Adopt for all staff (including doctors) flexible time arrangements, with
a view of reducing by at least 10% spending on overtime compensation in 2012 and another
10% in 2013. Implement a stricter control of working hours and activities of staff in the
hospital. [Q1-2012]
Cross services

3.81. Finalise the set-up of a system of patient electronic medical records. [Q2-2012]
3.82. Reduce costs for patient transportation by one third. [Q3-2011]
4. Labour market and education
Labour market


Revise the unemployment insurance system to reduce the risk of long-term unemployment
while strengthening social safety nets; reform employment protection legislation to tackle
labour market segmentation, foster job creation, and ease the transition of workers across
occupations, firms, and sectors; ease working time arrangements to contain employment
fluctuations over the cycle, better accommodate differences in work patterns across sectors
and firms, and enhance firmsí competitiveness; promote labour cost developments consistent
with job creation and enhanced competitiveness; ensure good practices and appropriate
resources to Active Labour Market Policies to improve the employability of the young and
disadvantaged categories and ease labour market mismatches.

Address early school leaving and improve the quality of secondary education and vocational
education and training, with a view to raise the quality of human capital and facilitate labour
market matching.

Reforms in labour and social security legislation will be implemented after consultation of
social partners, taking into account possible constitutional implications, and in respect of EU
Directives and Core Labour Standards.

Unemployment benefits

4.1. The Government will prepare by Q4-2011 an action plan to reform along the following
lines the unemployment insurance system, with a view to reduce the risk of long-term
unemployment and strengthen social safety nets:
i. reducing the maximum duration of unemployment insurance benefits to no
more than 18 months. The reform will not concern those currently unemployed
and will not reduce accrued-to-date rights of employees;
ii. capping unemployment benefits at 2.5 times the social support index (IAS) and
introducing a declining profile of benefits over the unemployment spell after
six months of unemployment (a reduction of at least 10% in the benefit
amount). The reform will concern those becoming unemployed after the


reducing the necessary contributory period to access unemployment insurance
from 15 to 12 months;
presenting a proposal for extending eligibility to unemployment insurance to
clearly-defined categories of self-employed workers providing their services to
a single firm on a regular basis. The proposal will take into account the risks of
possible abuses and will contain an assessment of the fiscal impact of
extending benefits under several scenarios concerning eligibility criteria
(namely the involuntary character of unemployment) and requirements for
increased social security contributions for firms making use of these
This plan will lead to draft legislation to be adopted by the Government by Q1-2012.
Employment protection legislation

4.3. The Government will carry out reforms in the employment protection system aimed at
tackling labour market segmentation, fostering job creation, and easing adjustment in the
labour market:
Severance payments.
The Government will submit by Q3-2011 legislation to Parliament to
implement a reform in the severance payments for new hires in line with the
March 2001 Tripartite Agreement. Severance payments of open-ended
contracts will be aligned with those of fixed-term contracts. The reform will
re-design the system for severance payment entitlements as follows:
total severance payments for new open ended contracts will be reduced
from 30 to 10 days per year of tenure (with 10 additional days to be paid
by an employersí financed fund) with a cap of 12 months and elimination
of the 3 months of pay irrespective of tenure;
total severance payments for fixed-term contracts will be reduced from 36
to 10 days per year of tenure for contracts shorter than 6 months and from
24 to 10 days for longer contracts (with 10 additional days to be paid by an
employersí financed fund);
implementation of the fund agreed in the March Tripartite Agreement to
partly finance the cost of dismissals for new hires.
By Q4-2011, the Government will present a proposal to align severance
payment entitlements for current employees in line with the reform for new
hires, (taking into account the revised link between entitlement and seniority
and the cap to total entitlements) without reducing accrued-to-date
entitlements. This plan will lead to draft legislation to be submitted to
Parliament by [Q1-2012].
By Q1-2012, the Government will prepare a proposal aiming at:
aligning the level of severance payments to that prevailing on average in
the EU;
allowing the severance pay entitlements financed from the fund agreed in
the Tripartite agreement to be transferable to different employers by means
of the creation of notional individual accounts.
On the basis of this proposal, draft legislation will be submitted to Parliament
no later than Q3-2012.


4.5. Definition of dismissals. The Government will prepare by Q4-2011 a reform proposal
aimed at introducing adjustments to the cases for fair individual dismissals contemplated in
the Labour Code with a view to fighting labour market segmentation and raise the use of
open-ended contracts. This proposal will lead to draft legislation to be submitted to
Parliament by Q1-2012.
Individual dismissals linked to unsuitability of the worker should become
possible even without the introduction of new technologies or other changes to
the workplace (art. 373-380, 385 Labour Code). Inter alia, a new reason can be
added regarding situations where the worker has agreed with the employer
specific delivery objectives and does not fulfil them, for reasons deriving
exclusively from the workersí responsibility;
Individual dismissals linked to the extinction of work positions should not
necessarily follow a pre-defined seniority order if more than one worker is
assigned to identical functions (art. 368 Labour Code). The predefined
seniority order is not necessary provided that the employer establishes a
relevant and non-discriminatory alternative criteria (in line with what already
happens in the case of collective dismissals);
Individual dismissals for the above reasons should not be subject to the
obligation to attempt a transfer for a possible suitable position (art. 368, 375
Labour Code). As a rule, whenever there are work positions available that
match the qualifications of the worker, dismissals should be avoided.
Working time arrangements

4.6. The Government will carry out reforms in working time arrangements with a view to
contain employment fluctuations over the cycle, better accommodate differences in work
patterns across sectors and firms, and enhance firmsí competitiveness.
The Government will prepare an assessment regarding the use made of
increased flexibility elements by the social partners associated with the 2009
Labour Code revision and prepare an action plan to promote the use of flexible
working time arrangements, including on modalities for permitting the
adoption of ìbank of hoursî working arrangement by mutual agreement of
employers and employees negotiated at plant level. [Q4-2011]
Draft legislation will be submitted to Parliament by Q1-2012 on the following
implementation of the commitments agreed in the March Tripartite
Agreement regarding working time arrangements and short-time working
schemes in cases of industrial crisis, by easing the requirements employers
have to fulfil to introduce and renew these measures;
revision of the minimum additional pay for overtime established in the
Labour Code: (i) reduction to maximum 50% (from current 50% for the
first overtime hour worked, 75% for additional hours, 100% for overtime
during holydays); (ii) elimination of the compensatory time off equal to
25% of overtime hours worked. These norms can be revised, upwards or
downwards, by collective agreement.

Wage setting and competitiveness

4.7. The Government will promote wage developments consistent with the objectives of
fostering job creation and improving firmsí competitiveness with a view to correct
macroeconomic imbalances. To that purpose, the Government will:
commit that, over the programme period, any increase in the minimum wage
will take place only if justified by economic and labour market developments
and agreed in the framework of the programme review;
define clear criteria to be followed for the extension of collective agreements
and commit to them. The representativeness of the negotiating organisations
and the implications of the extension for the competitive position of nonaffiliated
firms will have to be among these criteria. The representativeness of
negotiating organisations will be assessed on the basis of both quantitative and
qualitative indicators. To that purpose, the Government will charge the
national statistical authority to do a survey to collect data on the
representativeness of social partners on both sides of industry. Draft legislation
defining criteria for extension and modalities for their implementation will be
prepared by Q2-2012;
prepare an independent review by Q2-2012 on:
how the tripartite concertation on wages can be reinvigorated with the view
to define norms for overall wage developments that take into account the
evolution of the competitive position of the economy and a system for
monitoring compliance with such norms;
the desirability of shortening the survival (sobrevigÍncia) of contracts that
are expired but not renewed (art 501 of the Labour Code).
4.8. The Government will promote wage adjustments in line with productivity at the firm
level. To that purpose, it will: [Q4-2011]
implement the commitments in the Tripartite Agreement of March 2011
concerning the "organised decentralisation", notably concerning: (i) the
possibility for works councils to negotiate functional and geographical
mobility conditions and working time arrangements; (ii) the creation of a
Labour Relations Centre supporting social dialogue with improved information
and providing technical assistance to parties involved in negotiations; (iii) the
lowering of the firm size threshold above which works councils can conclude
firm-level agreements to 250 employees. Action for the implementation of
these measures will have to be taken by Q4-2011;
promote the inclusion in sectoral collective agreements of conditions under
which works councils can conclude firm-level agreements without the
delegation of unions. An action plan will have to be produced by by Q4-2011.
By Q1-2012 the Government will present a proposal to reduce the firm size
threshold for works councils to conclude agreements below 250 employees,
with a view to adoption by Q2-2012.
Draft legislation will be submitted to Parliament by Q1-2012.

Active labour market policies

4.9. The Government will ensure good practices and an efficient amount of resources to
activation policies to strengthen job search effort by the unemployed and to other Active

Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) to improve the employability of the young and
disadvantaged categories and ease labour market mismatches. The Government will present
by [Q4-2011]:

i. a report on the effectiveness of current activation policies and other ALMPs in
tackling long-term unemployment, improving the employability of the young
and disadvantaged categories, and easing labour market mismatch;
ii. an action plan for possible improvements and further action on activation
policies and other ALMPs, including the role of Public Employment Services.

Education and training

4.10. The Government will continue action to tackle low education attainment and early
school leaving and to improve the quality of secondary education and vocational education
and training, with a view to increase efficiency in the education sector, raise the quality of
human capital and facilitate labour market matching. To this purpose, the Government will:
Set up an analysis, monitoring, assessment and reporting system in order to
accurately evaluate the results and impacts of education and training policies,
notably plans already implemented (notably concerning cost saving measures,
vocational education and training and policies to improve school results and
contain early school leaving). [Q4-2011]
Present of an action plan to improve the quality of secondary education
services including via: (i) the generalization of trust agreements between the
Government and public schools, establishing wide autonomy, a simple
formula-based funding framework comprising performance evolution criteria,
and accountability; (ii) a simple result-oriented financing framework for
professional and private schools in association agreements based on fixed perclass
funding plus incentives linked to performance criteria; (iv) a reinforced
supervisory role of the General Inspectorate. [Q1-2012]
Present an action plan aimed at (i) ensuring the quality, attractiveness and
labour market relevance of vocational education and training through
partnerships with companies or other stakeholders; (ii) enhancing career
guidance mechanisms for prospective students in vocational educational
training. [Q1-2012]
5. Goods and services markets
Energy markets


Complete the liberalisation of the electricity and gas markets; ensure that the reduction of the
energy dependence and the promotion of renewable energies is made in a way that limits the
additional costs associated with the production of electricity under the ordinary and special
(co-generation and renewables) regimes; ensure consistency of the overall energy policy,
reviewing existing instruments. Continue promoting competition in energy markets and to
further integrate the Iberian market for electricity and gas (MIBEL and MIBGAS).


Liberalisation of electricity and gas markets

5.1. Regulated electricity tariffs will be phased out by January 1, 2013 at the latest. Present
a roadmap for the phasing out following a stepwise approach by July 2011. The provisions
should specify:
The timeline and criteria to liberalise the remaining regulated segments, such
as pre-determined conditions relating to the degree of effective competition in
the relevant market;
The methods to ensure that during the phasing-out period market prices and
regulated tariffs will not diverge significantly and to avoid cross-subsidisation
between consumers segments;
The definition of vulnerable consumers and the mechanism to protect them.
5.2. Transpose the Third EU Energy Package by the end of June 2011. This will ensure the
National Regulator Authorityís independence and all powers foreseen in the package.
5.3. In the gas market, the Government will take measures to accelerate the establishment of
a functioning Iberian market for natural gas (MIBGAS), in particular through regulatory
convergence. Take up political initiatives with Spanish authorities with the aim of eliminating
the double tariff. [Q3-2011]
Regulated gas tariffs are to be phased out by January 1, 2013 at the latest.
5.5. Review in a report the reasons for lack of entry in the gas market, despite the
availability of spare capacity, and the reasons for the lack of diversification of gas sources.
The report will also propose possible measures to address the identified problems. [Q4-2011]
Additional costs associated with electricity production under the ordinary

5.6. Take measures in order to limit the additional cost associated with the production of
electricity under the ordinary regime, in particular through renegotiation or downward
revision of the guaranteed compensation mechanism (CMEC) paid to producers under the
ordinary regime and the remaining long-term power-purchase agreements (PPAs). [Q4-2011]
Support schemes for production of energy under the special regime (cogeneration
and renewables)

5.7. Review the efficiency of support schemes for co-generation and propose possible
options for adjusting downward the feed-in tariff used in co-generation (reduce the implicit
subsidy) [Q4-2011]
5.8. Review in a report the efficiency of support schemes for renewables, covering their
rationale, their levels, and other relevant design elements.[Q4-2011]
5.9. For existing contracts in renewables, assess in a report the possibility of agreeing a
renegotiation of the contracts in view of a lower feed-in tariff. [Q4-2011]
5.10. For new contracts in renewables, revise downward the feed-in tariffs and ensure that the
tariffs do not over-compensate producers for their costs and they continue to provide an
incentive to reduce costs further, through digressive tariffs. For more mature technologies
develop alternative mechanisms (such as feed-in premiums). Reports on action taken will be
provided annually in Q3-2011, Q3-2012 and Q3-2013.

5.11. Decisions on future investments in renewables, in particular in less mature technologies,
will be based on a rigorous analysis in terms of its costs and consequences for energy prices.
International benchmarks should be used for the analysis and an independent evaluation
should be carried out. Reports on action taken will be provided annually in Q3-2011, Q32012
and Q3-2013.
5.12. Reduce the delays and uncertainty surrounding planning, authorisation and certification
procedures and improve the transparency of administrative requirements and charges for
renewable energy producers (in line with Article 13 and 14 of EU Directive 2009/28/EC).
Provide evidence of the measures taken to this end. [Q4-2011]
Energy policy instruments and taxation

5.13. Review existing energy related instruments, including taxation and energy efficiency
incentives. In particular, evaluate the risk of overlapping or inconsistent instruments [Q32011].
5.14. Based on the results of the review, modify energy policy instruments to ensure that they
provide incentives for rational use, energy savings and emission reductions. [Q4-2011]
5.15. Increase VAT tax rate in electricity and gas (presently at 6%) as well as excises for
electricity (presently below the minima required by EU legislation). [Q4-2011]
Telecommunications and postal services


Increase competition in the market by lowering entry barriers; guarantee access to
network/infrastructure; strengthen power of the National Regulator Authority.


The Government will:

5.16. Ensure more effective competition in the sector by implementing the new Directive on
EU electronic communications regulatory framework (ìBetter Regulation Directiveî), which
will (among others) enhance independence of the National Regulator Authority. [Q2-2011]
5.17. Facilitate market-entry by awarding new players the right to use ënewí radio frequencies
(i.e. auction of spectrum) for broadband wireless access [Q3-2011] and lowering mobile
termination rates [Q3-2011].
5.18. Ensure that the provision on universal service designation and the incumbentís
concession contract are non-discriminatory: re-negotiate the concession contract with the
undertaking currently providing the universal service and launch a new tender for designation
of universal service providers. [Q3-2011]
5.19. Adopt measures to increase competition in the fixed communications market by: i)
alleviating restrictions on mobility of consumers by reducing costs faced when deciding on
provider along the lines proposed by the Competition Authority (such as standardized
contracts, explicit right to free cancellation and facilitating price comparison) [Q3-2011]; ii)
reviewing barriers on entry and adopting measures to reduce them. [Q1-2012]

Postal services

The Government will:

5.20. Further liberalise the postal sector by transposing the Third Postal Directive ensuring
that powers and independence of the National Regulator Authority are appropriate in view of
its increased role in monitoring prices and costs [Q3-2011].
5.21. Eliminate VAT exemption for products within the universal service [Q3-2011]


Adopt a strategic plan to: rationalise networks and improve mobility and logistic conditions
in Portugal; improve energy efficiency and reduce environmental impact;) reduce transport
costs and ensure financial sustainability of the companies; strengthen competition in the
railways sector and attract more traffic; integrate ports into the overall logistic and transport
system, and make them more competitive.

The Government will take the following measures in the transport sector:

Strategic Plan for Transport:

5.22. Present a Strategic Plan for Transport, which should specifically include [Q3-2011]
i. An in-depth analysis of the transport system including an
existing capacity, forecast demand, and projected traffic flows;
assessment of
ii. Measures to integrate rail, port and air transport services into the overall
logistic and transport system, notably by improving competition in these
transport modes;
iii. Measures to facilitate entry for low-cost airline companies, making use of the
existing infrastructure;
iv. A set of priorities for investment with an estimate of the financial needs and
the foreseen sources of financing as well as of energy savings.

Measures will be concrete, including the exact instruments used to achieve them. Measures
will be chosen based on criteria of cost-effectiveness (comparing savings/costs).

Railways sector

5.23. Transpose the EU Railway Packages and in particular: [Q3-2011]
Strengthen the rail regulator independence and competences including by
strengthening its administrative capacity in terms of decision and execution
powers and staffing;
Ensure full independence of the state-owned railway operator CP from the State;
Balance the infrastructure managerís revenues and expenditures on the basis of a
multi-annual contract with the infrastructure manager of a duration of at least
three years and concrete commitments on State finance and performance;
Carry-out a rationalisation of the network and effective incentives for the
infrastructure manager to reduce its costs, whereby the regulatory body will be
given a monitoring role;

v. Revise the existing Public Service Obligations (PSOs) on rail passenger transport,
including the legal basis and administrative capacity for stepwise introduction of
competitive tendering for PSOs;
vi. Revise the infrastructure charging scheme to introduce a performance scheme,
permitting operators to introduce yield management of tickets, in particular to
raise ticket prices;
vii. Privatise the freight branch of the state-owned rail operator and some suburban

Ports [Q4-2011]

5.24. Define a strategy to integrate ports into the overall logistic and transport system.
Specify the objectives, scope and priorities of the strategy, and the link to the overall Strategic
Plan for the Transport sector.
5.25. Develop a legal framework to facilitate the implementation of the strategy and to
improve the governance model of the ports system. In particular, define the necessary
measures to ensure the separation of regulatory activity, port management and commercial
5.26. Specify in a report the objectives, the instruments and the estimated efficiency gains of
initiatives such as the interconnection between CP Cargo and Ex-Port, the Port Single
Window and Logistic Single Window.
5.27. Revise the legal framework governing port work to make it more flexible, including
narrowing the definition of what constitutes port work, bringing the legal framework closer to
the provisions of the Labour code.
Other services sector


Eliminate entry barriers in order to increase competition in the services sector; soften existing
authorisation requirements that hinder adjustment capacity and labour mobility; reduce
administrative burden that imposes unnecessary costs on firms and hamper their ability to
react to market conditions.

Sector-specific legislation of Services

5.28. Adopt the remaining necessary amendments to the sector specific legislation to fully
implement the Services Directive, easing the requirements related to establishment
and reducing the number of requirements to which cross-border providers are subject.
Amendments will be presented to the Parliament [Q3-2011] and adopted by [Q4-2011].
5.29. In case unjustified restrictions remain following the notification to the Commission of
the recently adopted sector-specific amendments in the areas of construction and real estate,
review and modify them accordingly. This includes making less burdensome the requirements
applying to cross-border providers, both for construction and real estate activities, and
reviewing obstacles to the establishment of service providers such as restrictions on
subcontracting (for construction) and on excessive liquidity obligations and physical
establishment (for real estate). [Q4-2011]

Professional qualifications

5.30. Improve the recognition framework on professional qualifications by adopting the
remaining legislation complementing the Portuguese Law 9/2009 on the recognition of
professional qualifications in compliance with the qualifications directive. Adopt the law
concerning professions not regulated by Parliament [Q3-2011] and present to Parliament the
law for those regulated by Parliament [Q3-2011] to be approved by [Q1-2012].
Regulated professions

5.31. Eliminate restrictions to the use of commercial communication (advertising) in
regulated professions, as required by the Services Directive [Q3-2011].
5.32. Review and reduce the number of regulated professions and in particular eliminate
reserves of activities on regulated professions that are no longer justified. Adopt the law for
professions not regulated by Parliament [Q3-2011] and present to Parliament the law for
those regulated by Parliament [Q3-2011] to be approved by [Q1-2012].
5.33. Adopt measures to liberalize the access and exercise of regulated professions by
professionals qualified and established in the European Union. Adopt the law for professions
not regulated by Parliament [Q3-2011] and present to Parliament the law for those regulated
by Parliament [Q3-2011] to be approved by [Q1-2012].
5.34. Further improve the functioning of the regulated professions sector (such as
accountants, lawyers, notaries) by carrying out a comprehensive review of requirements
affecting the exercise of activity and eliminate those not justified or proportional. [Q4-2011]
Administrative burden

5.35. Continue the simplification reform effort by:
i. making the Points of Single Contact (PSC) more user-friendly and responsive to
SMEs needs, extending on-line procedures to all sectors covered by the Services
Directive [Q4-2011] and adapt the content and information available at the PSC
to the new legislation to be adopted [Q1-2012];
ii. making fully operational the ìZero authorisationî project that abolish
authorisations/licensing and substitute them with a declaration to the PSC for the
wholesale and retail sector and restaurants and bars [Q4-2011]. The project shall
include all levels of administration, including all municipalities [Q2-2012];
iii. extending PSC to services not covered by the Services Directive [Q1-2013];
iv. extending the Zero authorisation project to other sectors of the economy [Q12013].

6. Housing market

Improve householdsí access to housing; foster labour mobility; improve the quality of
housing and make better use of the housing stock; reduce the incentives for households to
build up debt.


Rental market

6.1. The Government will present measures to amend the New Urban Lease Act Law 6/2006
to ensure balanced rights and obligations of landlords and tenants, considering the socially
vulnerable. [Q3-2011] This plan will lead to draft legislation to be submitted to Parliament by
[Q4-2011]. In particular, the reform plan will introduce measures to: i) broaden the conditions
under which renegotiation of open-ended residential leases can take place, including to limit
the possibility of transmitting the contract to first degree relatives; ii) introduce a framework
to improve households' access to housing by phasing out rent control mechanisms,
considering the socially vulnerable; iii) reduce the prior notice for termination of leases for
landlords; iv) provide for an extrajudicial eviction procedure for breach of contract, aiming at
shortening the eviction time to three months; and v) strengthen the use of the existing
extrajudicial procedures for cases of division of inherited property.
Administrative procedures for renovation

6.2. The Government will adopt legislation to simplify administrative procedures for
renovation. [Q3-2011] In particular, the specific measures will: i) simplify administrative
procedures for renovation works, safety requirements, authorisation to use and formalities for
innovations that benefit and enhance the buildingís quality and value (such as energy savings
measures). The majority of apartment owners will be defined as representing the majority of
the total value of the building; ii) simplify rules for the temporary relocation of tenants of
building subject to rehabilitation works with due regard of tenants needs and respect of their
living conditions; iii) grant landlords the possibility to ask for termination of the lease
contract for major renovation works (affecting the structure and stability of the building) with
a maximum 6 months of prior notice; iv) standardise the rules determining the level of
conservation status of property and the conditions for the demolition of buildings in ruin.
Property taxation

6.3. The Government will review the framework for the valuation of the housing stock and
land for tax purposes and present measures to (i) ensure that by end 2012 the taxable value of
all property is close to the market value and (ii) property valuation is updated regularly (every
year for commercial real estate and once every three years for residential real estate as
foreseen in the law). These measures could include enabling municipal officers, in addition to
tax officers, to evaluate the taxable value of property and the use of statistical methods to
monitor and update valuations. [Q3-2011]
6.4. The Government will modify property taxation with a view to level incentives for
renting versus acquiring housing. [Q4-2011] In particular, the Government will: i) limit
income tax deductibility of rents and mortgage interest payments as of 01.01.2012, except for
low income households. Principal payments will not be deductible as of 01.01.2012; ii)
rebalance gradually property taxation towards the recurrent real estate tax (IMI) and away
from the transfer tax (IMT), while considering the socially vulnerable. Temporary exemptions
of IMI for owner-occupied dwellings will be considerably reduced and the opportunity cost of
vacant or non-rented property will be significantly increased.
6.5. The Government will undertake a comprehensive review of the functioning of the
housing market with the support of internationally-reputed experts. [Q2-2013]

7. Framework conditions
Judicial system

Improve the functioning of the judicial system, which is essential for the proper and fair
functioning of the economy, through: (i) ensuring effective and timely enforcement of
contracts and competition rules; (ii) increasing efficiency by restructuring the court system,
and adopting new court management models; (iii) reducing slowness of the system by
eliminating backlog of courts cases and by facilitating out-of-court settlement mechanisms.

The Government will:

Court backlog

7.1. Intensify implementation of proposed measures under the Judicial Reform Map.
Conduct an audit of the backlog cases in order to better target measures [2011Q2]. Eliminate
court backlogs by [2013Q2]
7.2. Based on the audit, better target existing measures and assess the need for additional
measures to expedite the resolution of the backlog [2011Q2]. Additional measures to be
considered include, among others: (i) establishing separate Chambers or Teams (solely)
directed towards resolving the backlog, (ii) restructuring court record-keeping so that cases
can be taken off the books; (iii) merging similar small debt enforcement cases; (iv)
strengthening and enforcing existing regulations allowing dormant cases to be removed from
the court register; (v) imposing additional costs and penalties against non-cooperative debtors
in enforcement cases; (vi) introducing a staggered court fee structure for extended litigation
prompted by litigating parties without manifest cause; and (vii) assigning special court
managers to manage the court agenda/hearings allowing judges to focus on the cases.
Management of courts

7.3. Expedite the implementation of the Judicial Reform Map creating 39 court units, with
added management support for each unit, entirely financed through expenditure savings and
gains of efficiency [2012Q4]. This measure is part of the rationalisation effort, in order to
improve efficiency in the management of infrastructures and public services. Prepare a
roadmap on this reform identifying key quarterly milestones. [2011Q3]
7.4. Adopt new court management methods for two county courts, including Lisbon.
7.5. Develop a personnel management plan that permits judicial specialisation and mobility
of court officials. [2011Q4]
Alternative dispute resolution for out-of-court settlement

7.6. The Government will present a Law on Arbitration by end-September 2011 and make
arbitration for debt enforcement cases fully operational by end-February 2012 to facilitate
resolution of backlog cases and out of court settlement.
7.7. Optimize the regime for Justices for the Peace to increase its capacity to handle small
claim cases. [2012 Q1]

7.8. Adopt measures to give priority to alternative dispute resolution enforcement cases in
the courts. [2011 Q4]
Civil cases in the courts

7.9. Extent the new experimental civil procedure regime to 4 courts. [2011Q3]
7.10. Assess in a report whether the experimental civil procedure regime should be applied to
all courts. [2011Q4]
7.11. Make specialized courts on Competition and on Intellectual Property Rights fully
operational. [2012Q1]
7.12. Assess the need for separate Chambers within the Commercial Courts with specialized
judges for insolvency cases. [2011Q4]
7.13. The Government will present to Parliament a draft law to review the Code of Civil
Procedure and prepare a proposal identifying the key areas for refinement, including reducing
the administrative burdens for judges, consolidating legislation for all aspects of all cases
before the court, giving the judge powers to expedite cases, and enforcing statutory deadlines
to expedite the resolution of cases in the courts. [2011Q4]
7.14. Adopt specific measures for an orderly and efficiency resolution of outstanding tax
cases including (also covered under revenue administration):
i. taking necessary steps to implement the Tax Arbitration Law (to enable an
effective out of court resolution of tax claims); [2011 Q3]
ii. assessing measures to expedite the resolution of tax cases such as: i) creating a
special procedure for high value cases; ii) establishing criteria for prioritizing;
iii) extending statutory interests for the entire the court proceeding; iv)
imposing a special statutory interest payment on late compliance with a tax
court decision. [2011Q4]

Budget and allocation or resources

7.15. Standardize court fees and introduce special court fees for certain categories of cases
and procedures with the aim of boosting revenue and disincentivizing spurious civil litigation.

7.16. Develop an annual workplan on the allocation of resources based on court by court
performance data, which will be published annually on the internet .
7.17. Conduct a workload/staffing assessment for the six pilot courts under the Judicial
Reform Map, as well as for the specialist courts.[2012 Q1]
7.18. Publish quarterly reports on recovery rates, duration and costs of corporate insolvency
and tax cases, publishing the first report by [2011Q3]
Competition, public procurement and business environment


Ensure a level playing field and minimise rent-seeking behaviour by strengthening
competition and sectoral regulators; eliminate special rights of the state in private companies
(golden shares); reduce administrative burdens on companies; ensure fair public procurement


processes; improve effectiveness of existing instruments dealing with export promotion and
access to finance and support the reallocation of resources towards the tradable sector.

Competition and sectoral regulators

8.1. The Government will eliminate "golden shares" and all other special rights established
by law or in the statutes of publicly quoted companies that give special rights to the state
(July 2011).
8.2. Take measures to improve the speed and effectiveness of competition rulesí
enforcement. In particular:
Establish a specialised court in the context of the reforms of the judicial system
Propose a revision of the competition law, making it as autonomous as possible
from the Administrative Law and the Penal Procedural Law and more
harmonized with the European Union competition legal framework, in
particular: [2011Q4]
simplify the law, separating clearly the rules on competition
enforcement procedures from the rules on penal procedures with a view
to ensure effective enforcement of competition law;
rationalize the conditions that determine the opening of investigations,
allowing the competition authority to make an assessment of the
relevance of the claims;
establish the necessary procedures for a greater alignment between
Portuguese law on merger control and the EU Merger Regulation,
namely with regard to the criteria to make compulsory the ex ante
notification of a concentration operation.;
ensure more clarity and legal certainty in the application of Procedural
Administrative law in merger control.
evaluate the appeal process and adjust it where necessary to increase
fairness and efficiency in terms of due process and timeliness of
Ensure that the Portuguese Competition Authority has sufficient and stable
financial means to guarantee its effective and sustained operation. [2011Q4]
8.3. Ensure that the national regulator authorities (NRA) have the necessary independence
and resources to exercise their responsibilities. [2012Q1] In order to achieve this:
provide an independent report (by internationally recognised specialists) on the
responsibilities, resources and characteristics determining the level of
independence of the main NRAs. The report will benchmark nomination
practices, responsibilities, independence and resources of each NRA with
respect to best international practice. It will also cover scope of operation of
sectoral regulators, their powers of intervention, as well as the mechanisms of
coordination with the Competition Authority. [2011Q4]

based on the report, present a proposal to implement the best international
practices identified to reinforce the independence of regulators where
necessary, and in full compliance with EU law. [2011Q4]
Public procurement

The Government will modify the national public procurement legal framework and improve
award practices to ensure a more transparent and competitive business environment and
improve efficiency of public spending. In particular, it will:

8.4. Eliminate, with regard to public foundations as set out in Law n.∫ 62/2007, all
exemptions permitting the direct award of public contracts above the Public Procurement
Directives thresholds to ensure full compliance with the Directives [2011Q3]
8.5. Eliminate all special, permanent or temporary exemptions, permitting the direct award
of public contracts below the Public Procurement Directives thresholds to ensure full
compliance with the principles of the TFEU.[2011Q3]
8.6. Amend the Portuguese Public Procurement Code provisions on errors and omissions
and additional works/services in accordance with the Public Procurement Directives.

8.7. Implement appropriate measures to address the currently existing problems with regard
to direct awards for additional works/services and to ensure that such awards occur
exclusively under strict conditions foreseen by the Directives. [2011Q4]
8.8. Take measures to render contracting authorities' administrators financially responsible
for lack of compliance with public procurement rules as recommended by the Portuguese
Court of Auditors. [2011Q4]
8.9. Ensure ex-ante auditing/checks on public procurement by the appropriate national
bodies (most notably the Portuguese Court of Auditors) as a tool to prevent and counteract the
practice of illegal award of additional works/services and increase transparency. [2011Q3]
8.10. Upgrade the national Public Procurement Portal (Base) based on Resolution n∫ 17/2010
of the National Parliament in order to improve transparency of award procedures [2011Q4]
8.11. Modify Art. 42 (7) (8) (9) of the Public Procurement Code, which sets out a
requirement for investment in R&D projects on all public contracts worth more than EUR 25
million, to ensure full compliance with the Public Procurement directives, in particular by: i)
eliminating the condition for the R&D project to be carried out in national territory; ii)
requiring the R&D investments to be directly relevant for the performance of the contract; and
iii) ensuring that all amounts to be spent on R&D projects are linked and justified by the
subject-matter of the contract. [2011Q4]
Business environment

8.12. Adopt the ìSimplex Exportsî programme, including measures to accelerate the
procedures for requesting VAT exemption for exporting firms and simplify procedures
associated with indirect exports. [2011Q4]
8.13. Reinforce measures to facilitate access to finance and export markets for companies, in
particular for SMEs. This will include a review of the overall consistency and effectiveness of
existing measures. [2011Q4]

8.14. Promote liquidity conditions for business by timely implementing the New Late
Payments Directive. [2013Q1]
8.15. Reduce administrative burdens by including municipalities and all levels of public
administration within the scope of the Simplex Programme. [2013Q1]

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